Pakistan Meteorological Department

Climate Change Impact & Integration Cell (CIIC)
Webinar Meeting (Wednesday, 14th October, 2020 3PM - 4PM)

Courting Devastating Effects of SMOG in Changing Climate

Featured Speakers

  • Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan
    (Policy Interventions)
    Professor, IIU Islamabad
  • Dr. Sajid Rashid Ahmad
    (Technology Interventions)
    Principal CEES, Punjab University
  • Dr. Muhammad Hanif
    (Role of Early Warning)
    Chief Meteorologist, PMD
  • Ms. Farzana Altaf Shah
    (Government Initiative)
    Director General, PEPA
  • Dr. Sikandar Khan Tanveer
    (Rabi Season 2020-21 Sowing)
    Leader, Wheat Program NARC
  • Dr. Azmat Hayat Khan (Convener)
    Chief Meteorologist, PMD


In recent years, FOG has emerged as one of the most severe environmental and meteorological hazard. Human activities in plain areas of Pakistan are severely affected by FOG. During prevalence of FOG, sun is obstructed, visibility decreases to less than few meters, flights are disrupted, and motorways are closed down, chances of accidents increases, respiratory tract infection cases among people increases.

Another variant of FOG is SMOG that engulfs central Pakistan in winters. SMOG is often caused by agriculture activities (crop residue burning), however, air pollution from transport and industrial sector contributes in formation of SMOG, substantially. In Pakistan, the FOG and SMOG may be result of different meteorological conditions, it may start as advection/radiation FOG tuning into SMOG on availability of pollutants. Since monsoon 2020 was a wet season and soil is moisture abundant, such conditions favors development of SMOG in plains of Pakistan. There is a need to deter SMOG from turning into SMOG.

This consultation is intended to sensidize the communities to take precautionary measures in coming SMOG months and to update farming community about the relatively drier October-December period. Necessary advise on timely sowing for Rabi season and the suitable crop varieties will also be discussed by the Agri-experts.

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